Item Details

Call Number: MS Hunter 242 (U.3.15)
Title: Historia de Tlaxcala
Images: [ MS Hunter 242 fol. 242 (detail) ] [ MS Hunter 242 insert fol. 177-178 (detail) ]
Associated Websites: Ms Hunter 242: Book of the month.
Date of Creation: Between 1499 and 1599
Level of Description: Item
Part of MS Hunter 1-658
Content: Diego Muñoz Camargo, Historia de Tlaxcala.
Diego Muñoz Camargo's History of the City and Province of Tlaxcala (Mexico):
Begins - after a title page (occupying 1, 1 recto):- "Descripçion de la çiudad y Prouincia de | tlaxcala de la nueva España y In | dias del Mar Oçeano para el | buen gouierno y ennobleci | miento dellas. Manda | da hazer porla | S.C.R.M. del | Rey don Phi | lipe nuestro | senor. | Hecha por Diego muñoz Camargo Vezino y | natural de la misma çiudad:- | Soli deo Honor et gloria," and a full-page heraldic blazon in colours of the Royal Spanish arms (occupying 1, 2 recto), the shield being crowned and surrounded with the collar and pendant of the Order of the Golden Fleece composed of 10 sparking flints between pairs of steel strikers, linked in succession, see S.1.9 - (2, 1 recto lines 1-7): Instruction y memoria de las relaciones | que se an de hazer para la descripcion | de las Indias que su Magestad manda | hazer para el buen gouierno y ennoble- | cimiento dellas | PRIMERAMENTE. | Los Gouernadores, Corregidores, o, Alcaldes mayores a quien los Visore-
Ends (30, 7 [f. '234'] verso lines 10-12): campanario del pueblo de Topayanco que aynas cayera por | el suelo. | Opus laudat Artificem.
Remarks: This MS. belonged to the Royal Library of Philip II., to whom it was presented by the author whose autograph signature it bears, at the close of his epistle dedicatory (2, 6 verso) and it was there in 1629 when Antonius Leonius (De Leon Pinelo) published at Madrid his Bibliotheca Indica Occidentalis (see tit. XV.). Alphonsus Ramon notes this work with approval in his Historia general de la orden de Nuestra Señora de la Merced Redençion de Captivos. Matriti 1618, 1633.
On 1, 1 recto in a XVII. Cent. hand: De la libreria | de Ortensio.
On 2, 1 recto and 2, 2 recto (repeated): .60. cerratos.
The sign of the cross (+) occurs on the top margin of 1, 1 recto, 2, 1 recto, and 2, 6 [f. '1'] recto; in the last instance followed by S.C.R. Md., i.e. Sacra Catolica Reale Magestad, the same titular initials concluding the dedication (2, 6 [f. '1'] verso lines 15-19): S.C.R. Md. | Besa los Reales pies y manos | de Vuestra Magestad su humilde vassallo y Criado | Diego muñoz | camargo.
On 22, 2 [f. 165] is an astrological table surmounted with the same sign. The ink has here corroded the paper, as it has also done in the fourth quarter of the shield on 1, 2 recto.
The chronological cycles of 23, 7 recto extend from 1519 to 1570.
The lunar cycles of 23, 8 recto are entitled: "Son los nonbres de los Meses."
The illustrations which occupy 31, 1 [f. 236] recto to 57, 2 recto are executed in China ink in the most spirited manner, and give striking representations of native dwellings, with totems ("armas") (1-4), the propaganda in Mexico (5-15), plans of Palace and Monastery, Tlaxcala (16-18), the Conquest of the New World (19-25), the Conquest of Mexico by Cortes (26-157). Above each picture (mostly cropped off) is a brief explanation or title (in China ink) probably by the illustrator; underneath is a fuller description in the same handwriting and ink as in the rest of the book, but rather more hurriedly written. The same hand has frequently added their names above the respective personages. Many traces of pounce remain (?talc). The bottom of 33, 4 has been folded up, showing the original length of the page to have been 12½ inches. The pictures on 35, 2 verso, 3 recto form one tableau; in the former Piçarus (Pizarro) presents Peru and Cortesius (Cortes) Nueva España, in the latter Columbus kneels and presents a globe "el nuevo mundo" to Charles V. crowned and seated on a war-horse, while on 35, 3 verso (possibly meant to belong to the scene) Philip sits on horseback, crowned, wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece and surrounded by men-at-arms. The crowned Spanish coat of arms is depicted in the foreground.
36, 1 recto begins the series of Cortes' conquests with the scuttling of his ships at Cempoala. (See W.H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, London, 1844, i. 337.)
On 57, 3 recto is a coloured blazon. The shield is party per pale half-way down, thence the dexter and sinister sides taper downwards and outwards, leaving an oval compartment in the base. On the dexter side (or) are four (2, 2.) oval openings (sable) bordered compony (argent and sable); it is bordered (gules) with castles (of Castile) (or). On the sinister side, party per pale, the dexter half is party per fess, having above (gules), a left hand (argent), sleeved (vert), and being below barry, undé, of seven, (azure and argent lined with azure); on the sinister half (azure) is an eight-pointed star (or). On the base (or) is a peccary, statant, dexter (proper), with three bleeding wounds in front of a tree (proper).
The author of this work was a mestizo of noble descent, educated as a Christian, instructed in Castilian from his youth, and able as a native of Tlaxcala to supply much interesting information as to the social condition of his country at the time of the Conquest, living as he did towards the close of the sixteenth century. For Prescott's notice of him, see ii. 271.
The death of Philip II. in 1598 gives the terminus ante quem for this MS.
The blazon on 1, 2 recto bears quarterly I. 1.4. (gules) three embattled castles (or) masoned (azure), 2. 3. a lion rampant dexter (gules) [Spain]; II. Party per pale, dexter: paly of eight (gules and or), sinister: party per saltire, 1. 2. paly of ten (gules and or), 3. 4. (arg.) an eagle displayed (sable) [Naples]; III. bordered (gules) bendy of seven (? for 8) (azure and or) [Burgundy]; IV. (sable) a lion rampant dexter (or) [Netherlands]. A fess divides I. II. and III. IV., party per pale, dexter: (arg), sinister: bordered compony (gules and arg.) the field (azure) fleur-de-lisé (or) [Burgundy]. Two escutcheons are surcharged in pale, the upper: (azure) five roundels (plates) in saltire (arg.) [Portugal]; the lower: party per pale, dexter: as in IV., sinister: as in II. 2. 3. but with the eagle (gules), in chief (arg.) a pomegranate (proper).
[Formerly S.3.13; S.3.39].
See handwritten note from De Pinto.
The Phillipps Copy? 241. Munoz Camargo, Diego: [Manuscript:] "FRAGMENTOS DE LA HISTORIA DE TLAXCALA." Mexico City. October 22, 1852. 276 pp. Folio. Bound in plain, recent green sheep. Ink on titlepage has run due to attempt to remove ownership stamp on verso, but not seriously marring appearance of that page. Private ownership stamps, partially erased. Bookplate of Florencio Gavito. A clean, easy to read copy. Diego Munoz Camargo was a mestizo of considerable means, education, and social standing in the province of Tlaxcala during the last half of the sixteenth century. He wrote this history of the pre-Conquest Tlaxcalans around 1590, but it remained unpublished until 1892. It circulated, nonetheless, in manuscript throughout the colonial era. The Tlaxcalans were Cortes' chief allies in conquering the Aztec empire and are mentioned frequently in Cortes' letters to the King and in Bernal Diaz del Castillo's history of the Conquest. Munoz Camargo's history is one of the few, and certainly the "major source on precontact and sixteenth-century ethno-history of the area" (C.G. Griffin, Latin America: A Guide to the Historical Literature, item 1399). This copy of the manuscript was made in 1852 from the copy in the possession of Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta, the great bibliophile and bibliographer. The copyist's introduction is apparently signed and dated by M. Macedo, and in every regard except the recent rebinding, appears to be the Sir Thomas Phillipps copy (c.f. entry in Bibliotheca Phillippica). $1800. (Philadelphia Rare Books and Manuscripts Company, January 1989).
Physical Description: Bound volume.
Paper, 11 3/8 x 8¼, ff. 327, originally ff. 334, well written in one hand throughout, in single cols. of about 20 lines, each 9 3/8 x 6½, red margins, not ruled, signatures (A-Z, aa-gg) in right top corner of each quire, no catchwords, pagination, contemporary (ff. 1-237), red marginal lines, not ruled, full-page blazons (two) and pen and ink pictures (156), two inset sheets of astronomical diagrams, coloured (between ff. 177 and 178), marginalia, cropped (one inch shorter), damaged by damp. Late Cent. XVI.
Binding: Original vellum, vellum straps and ties, gilt edges, goffered, title, in ink (modern): FLAXACALA. Late Cent. XVI.
[For detailed collation see: John Young and P. Henderson Aitken, A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of The Hunterian Museum in The University of Glasgow. (Glasgow, 1908), p. 192.]
Access: Access to original by appointment only, facsimile should be used.
Language: Spanish
Material Type: Document
Bibliography: Published as: Diego Muñoz Camargo, Descripción de la ciudad y provincia de Tlaxcala de las indias y del mar océano para el buen gobierno y enmoblecimiento dellas, com un estudio preliminar de René Acuña (México, 1981) - facsimile of MS Hunter 242. See also: Aztecs (London, 2002), pp 392-393, 493-494, including plate of fols 241v-242r; Azteken (Köln, 2003), pp 392-393, 494-495, including plate of fols 241v-242r; Jack Baldwin, William Hunter, 1718-1783, book collector: catalogue of an exhibition (Glasgow, 1983), no. 14; Seeds of change: a quincentennial commemoration, edited by Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, c1991); Uta Berger, Mexican painted manuscripts in the United Kingdom (London, 1998), pp 62-66 and plates, pp 136-140; G. Brotherston and A. Gallegos, 'El lienzo de Tlaxcala y el manuscrito de Glasgow (Hunter 242)', Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl, vol. 20 (1990), pp 117-140; V.M. Fields and Victor Zamudio-Taylor, The road to Aztlan: art from a mythic homeland (Los Angeles, 2001), p. 248 and figs 203 and 212; C.G. Griffin, Latin America: a guide to the historical literature (Austin, 1971), item 1399; Ross Hassig, Aztec warfare: imperial expansion and political control (Norman, 1988) - includes 3 Illustrations reproduced from MS Hunter 242; R.L. Kagan, Urban images of the Hispanic world, 1493-1793 (New Haven, 2000), pp 36-37 and plate 2.9; A. Martínez, 'Las pinturas del manuscrito de Glasgow y el lienzo de Tlaxcala', Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl, vol. 20 (1990), pp 141ff; Museo de América (Madrid), Los siglos de oro en los virreinatos de América, 1550-1700 (Madrid, 1999), pp 214-215, (description by Jaime Cuadriello with 4 plates); Isaac de Pinto and William Hunter, MS notes, Glasgow University Library, MS Hunter H227; David Weston and Julie Gardham, Hispanica (Glasgow, 2003), pp 14-15; John Young & P.H. Aitken, A catalogue of the manuscripts in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1908), pp 192-194; Moctezuma: Aztec ruler, edited by Colin McEwan and Leonardo López Lújan, (London : British Museum Press, 2009).
Exhibitions: This manuscript has been exhibited on the following occasions: 'William Hunter, Book Collector', Glasgow University Library, Apr.-Sep. 1983; 'Seeds of change', National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 1991; 'Manuscripts from Two Millennia', Glasgow University Library, 20 May 1996; 'Los Siglos de Oro en los Virreinatos de América, 1550-1700', Museo de América, Madrid, 23 Nov. 1999-12 Feb. 2000; 'Aztecs', Royal Academy of Arts, London, 16 Nov. 2002-11 Apr. 2003; 'Hispanica', Glasgow University Library, 14-16 Apr. 2003; 'Azteken', Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 17 May-10 Aug. 2003; 'Moctezuma: Aztec Ruler', British Museum, London, 24 September 2009-24 January 2010.
Accession Number: 2482
See details of how this material was acquired
Location of Copies: Facsimile available at Sp Coll RF 76 - Diego Muñoz Camargo, Descripción de la ciudad y provincia de Tlaxcala ... (México, 1981)
Repository Code: GB 0247

Names associated with this item:

author: Diego Muñoz Camargo 1529-1599
exhibition: Aztecs
Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 16 Nov. 2002-11 Apr. 2003.
exhibition: Azteken
Exhibition, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 17 May-10 August 2003; Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn, 26 September 2003-11 January 2004.
exhibition: Hispanica
A display of rare books in Glasgow University Library, Glasgow Conference, Association of Hispanists of Great britain and Ireland, 14-16 April 2003.
exhibition: Manuscripts from Two Millennia 1996
Exhibition mounted to coincide with the visit of the Manuscript Society, Glasgow University Library, 20 May 1996.
exhibition: Siglos de Oro en los Virreinatos de América, 1550-1700 1999-2000
Exhibition: Los Siglos de Oro en los Virreinatos de América, 1550-1700, Museo de América, Madrid, 23 Nov. 1999-12 Feb. 2000.
exhibition: William Hunter, Book Collector 1983
Exhibition, Glasgow University Library, 14 april-30 September 1983.
provenance: Philip II King of Spain d. 1598
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